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Dr. Papa performs all phases of foot care including the treatment of:


Bunions and hallux limitus are the two most common causes of big toe pain. Normally, the big toe bends about 60-75 degrees when you walk. If your foot is very flat, if your toe or foot has been injured, if you are getting older, or if you wear shoes that are too tight, too much pressure may be placed on the joint, limiting its motion. Over time, the joint can become painful, stiff, deformed, and eventually destroyed.

Stiffness of the big toe joint is known as hallux limitus; "hallux" means "big toe," and "limitus" means "limited." Hallux limitus is usually accompanied by pain and arthritis in the big toe joint. It is a degenerative condition, meaning it gets worse over time. If hallux limitus is left untreated, the joint may eventually fuse, losing all motion ("hallux rigidus"). Early detection and treatment is key to limiting damage.

Many people with hallux limitus develop a deformity known as a bunion. A bunion occurs when pressure on the big toe gradually forces it to bend toward or under the second toe, and a bump forms on top of the joint.


Hammertoes are an abnormal "V"-shaped bending of the little toes. Caused by stiffened tendons, hammertoes often form because of a muscle imbalance, arthritis, a hereditary condition, an injury, or tight shoes that squeeze the toes. They may be flexible (the toes can still be moved at the damaged joint) or rigid (the toes are immobile). Many people with hammertoes develop swelling, redness, stiffness, or painful corns or calluses as the toes rub against the inside of the shoes.

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A fracture is a break in a bone. It may be a crack in the bone (a stress fracture) or a complete break; the bones may shift out of place or break the skin. Fractures in the bones of the foot and ankle cause a variety of symptoms and require different treatments depending on the location and severity of the break as well as the patient's overall health.

  • Digits (toes/phalanges) & Metatarsals (long bones of the forefoot)
  • Lisfranc joint (midfoot)
  • Calcaneus (heel)
  • Ankle

Diabetic Wounds

People with diabetes are at high risk for developing problems with their feet. More than half of diabetics lose sensation in their feet due to nerve or blood vessel damage, and can hurt themselves without knowing it. To make things worse, diabetes slows healing and weakens the immune system, so what may seem like an inconsequential injury can quickly become a major problem. Even the smallest of foot and ankle injuries such as a blister or ingrown toenail can lead to infection and tissue death. One of the most serious complications of the diabetic foot is Charcot foot, a deformity that develops when people fracture bones in their feet without realizing it and then continue to walk on the injury because they don't feel any pain.


A neuroma is a painful swelling of a nerve, usually in the ball or heel of the foot. Symptoms include sporadic pain; burning, tingling or numbness of one or more toes; and a popping sensation when walking. Pain is often soothed by taking weight off the foot or by massaging the area.

In the foot, there are the long bones (metatarsals) and thin nerves running between them. The nerves split in a Y-shape when they reach the toes. If the metatarsals move abnormally, they can pinch the nerve between them, causing inflammation and, eventually, permanent nerve damage. Morton’s Neuroma is the most common of this type and affects the nerve between the third and fourth toes. Neuromas may also occur after a nerve has been injured, either from a traumatic wound or from damage suffered during surgery.


Warts are skin growths caused by viruses. Different warts respond to different treatments. Some go away on their own. Salicylic acid products (in the form of drops, gels, pads and bandages) can help self-treatment of many warts by dissolving the keratin protein that makes up the wart and the dead skin above it. Others can be removed via liquid nitrogen freezing or electrical stimulation. Surgery may be recommended for painful or large warts that do not respond to these treatments.

Ingrown Nail

Ingrown Nails usually occur when the nail grows into the skin instead of over it. This affects the big toe.

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